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Ways and Means - A Pamphlet On Revenues - V

1. I

2. II

3. III

4. IV

5. V

6. VI

But now, if it is evident that, in order to get the full benefit of all
these sources of revenue, (1) peace is an indispensable condition--if
that is plain, I say, the question suggests itself, would it not be
worth while to appoint a board to act as guardians of peace? Since no
doubt the election of such a magistracy would enhance the charm of this
city in the eyes of the whole world, and add largely to the number
of our visitors. But if any one is disposed to take the view, that by
adopting a persistent peace policy, (2) this city will be shorn of
her power, that her glory will dwindle and her good name be forgotten
throughout the length and breadth of Hellas, the view so taken by our
friends here (3) is in my poor judgment somewhat unreasonable. For
they are surely the happy states, they, in popular language, are most
fortune-favoured, which endure in peace the longest season. And of all
states Athens is pre-eminently adapted by nature to flourish and wax
strong in peace. The while she abides in peace she cannot fail to
exercise an attractive force on all. From the mariner and the merchant
upwards, all seek her, flocking they come; the wealthy dealers in corn
and wine (4) and oil, the owner of many cattle. And not these only, but
the man who depends upon his wits, whose skill it is to do business and
make gain out of money (5) and its employment. And here another crowd,
artificers of all sorts, artists and artisans, professors of wisdom,
(6) philosophers, and poets, with those who exhibit and popularise their
works. (7) And next a new train of pleasure-seekers, eager to feast on
everything sacred or secular, (8) which may captivate and charm eye and
ear. Or once again, where are all those who seek to effect a rapid sale
or purchase of a thousand commodities, to find what they want, if not at

(1) Or, "to set these several sources of revenue flowing in full

(2) Cf. "a policy of peace at any price," or, "by persisting for any
length of time in the enjoyment of peace."

(3) {kai outoi ge}. The speaker waves his hand to the quarter of the
house where the anti-peace party is seated.

(4) After Zurborg, I omit {oukh oi eduoinoi}.

(5) Reading {kai ap arguriou}, with Zurborg.

(6) Lit. "Sophists." See Grote, "H. G." viii. lxvii. note, p. 497.

(7) E.g. chorus-trainers, musicians, grammarians, rhapsodists, and

(8) Or, "sacred and profane."

But if there is no desire to gainsay these views--only that certain
people, in their wish to recover that headship (9) which was once the
pride of our city, are persuaded that the accomplishment of their hopes
is to be found, not in peace but in war, I beg them to reflect on some
matters of history, and to begin at the beginning, (10) the Median war.
Was it by high-handed violence, or as benefactors of the Hellenes, that
we obtained the headship of the naval forces, and the trusteeship of the
treasury of Hellas? (11) Again, when through the too cruel exercise of
her presidency, as men thought, Athens was deprived of her empire, is it
not the case that even in those days, (12) as soon as we held aloof from
injustice we were once more reinstated by the islanders, of their own
free will, as presidents of the naval force? Nay, did not the very
Thebans, in return for certain benefits, grant to us Athenians
to exercise leadership over them? (13) And at another date the
Lacedaemonans suffered us Athenians to arrange the terms of hegemony
(14) at our discretion, not as driven to such submission, but in
requital of kindly treatment. And to-day, owing to the chaos (15) which
reigns in Hellas, if I mistake not, an opportunity has fallen to this
city of winning back our fellow-Hellenes without pain or peril or
expense of any sort. It is given to us to try and harmonise states
which are at war with one another: it is given to us to reconcile the
differences of rival factions within those states themselves, wherever

(9) Lit. "her hegemony for the city," B.C. 476.

(10) "And first of all."

(11) See Thuc. i. 96.

(12) B.C. 378. Second confederacy of Delos. See Grote, "H. G." x. 152.

(13) B.C. 375. Cf. "Hell." V. iv. 62; Grote, "H. G." x. 139; Isocr.
"Or." xiv. 20; Diod. Sic. xv. 29.

(14) B.C. 369 (al. B.C. 368). Cf. "Hell." VII. i. 14.

(15) See "Hell."VII. v. 27.

Make it but evident that we are minded to preserve the independence (16)
of the Delphic shrine in its primitive integrity, not by joining in
any war but by the moral force of embassies throughout the length and
breadth of Hellas--and I for one shall not be astonished if you find our
brother Hellenes of one sentiment and eager under seal of solemn oaths
(17) to proceed against those, whoever they may be, who shall seek (18)
to step into the place vacated by the Phocians and to occupy the sacred
shrine. Make it but evident that you intend to establish a general
peace by land and sea, and, if I mistake not, your efforts will find
a response in the hearts of all. There is no man but will pray for the
salvation of Athens next to that of his own fatherland.

(16) "Autonomy."

(17) See Thuc. v. 18, clause 2 of the Treaty of Peace, B.C. 422-421.

(18) Reading, with Zurborg, {peironto}. Or, if the vulgate
{epeironto}, transl. "against those who sought to step."

Again, is any one persuaded that, looking solely to riches and
money-making, the state may find war more profitable than peace? If so,
I cannot conceive a better method to decide that question than to allow
the mind to revert (19) to the past history of the state and to note
well the sequence of events. He will discover that in times long gone by
during a period of peace vast wealth was stored up in the acropolis, the
whole of which was lavishly expended during a subsequent period of war.
He will perceive, if he examines closely, that even at the present time
we are suffering from its ill effects. Countless sources of revenue have
failed, or if they have still flowed in, been lavishly expended on a
multiplicity of things. Whereas, (20) now that peace is established by
sea, our revenues have expanded and the citizens of Athens have it in
their power to turn these to account as they like best.

(19) Reading {epanoskopoin}.

(20) Or, "But the moment peace has been restored."

But if you turn on me with the question, "Do you really mean that even
in the event of unjust attacks upon our city on the part of any, we
are still resolutely to observe peace towards that offender?" I answer
distinctly, No! But, on the contrary, I maintain that we shall all the
more promptly retaliate on such aggression in proportion as we have done
no wrong to any one ourselves. Since that will be to rob the aggressor
of his allies. (21)

(21) Reading, after Cobet, {ei medena uparkhoimen adikountes}. Or, if
the vulgate {ei medena parakhoimen adikounta}, transl. "if we can
show complete innocence on our own side."

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